The President of Italy (Presidente della Repubblica), currently Sergio Mattarella since 2015, is Italy's head of state. Every Formula 1 Grand Prix (except for the 1980) has been held at Autodromo Nazionale Monza. The scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: the Christian Democrats, who ruled for almost 50 years, underwent a severe crisis and eventually disbanded, splitting up into several factions. Italian fashion has a long tradition, and is regarded as one most important in the world. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy,[451][452] and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata, can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music. Currently, about one million Romanian citizens (around 10% of them being ethnic Romani people[334]) are officially registered as living in Italy, representing thus the most important individual country of origin, followed by Albanians and Moroccans with about 500,000 people each. [126][127][128] The Years of Lead culminated in the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 and the Bologna railway station massacre in 1980, where 85 people died. As of 2013[update], Italy was deploying 5,296 troops abroad, engaged in 33 UN and NATO missions in 25 countries of the world. Boxing music. Famous Italian opera singers include Enrico Caruso and Alessandro Bonci. Easy to follow guides and original insightHaving an incredible PC is all well and good, but it's what you do with it that matters. The Galli Law, passed in 1993, aimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues. [243] The country boasts a wide range of acclaimed products, from very compact city cars to luxury supercars such as Maserati, Lamborghini, and Ferrari, which was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance.[244]. Recent analytic philosophers include Carlo Penco, Gloria Origgi, Pieranna Garavaso and Luciano Floridi. Due to the growing economic and social gap, the southern question is beginning to be talked about[388] The imbalance between North and South, which widened steadily in the first post-unification century, was reduced in the sixties and seventies also through the construction of public works, the implementation of agrarian and scholastic reforms,[389] the expansion of industrialization and the improved living conditions of the population. However, the reorganization of the army and the conscription of the so-called '99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99, all males born in 1899 who were turning 18) led to more effective Italian victories in major battles, such as on Monte Grappa and in a series of battles on the Piave river. [94] The second consequence of the Fall of Constantinople was the beginning of the Age of Discovery. The Greek colonization places the Italic peoples in contact with democratic forms of government and with high artistic and cultural expressions.[70]. This convergence process was interrupted, however, in the 1980s. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. [63], Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy[64][65][66][67] and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia. [186][187], Extensive traffic and congestion in the largest metropolitan areas continue to cause severe environmental and health issues, even if smog levels have decreased dramatically since the 1970s and 1980s, and the presence of smog is becoming an increasingly rarer phenomenon and levels of sulphur dioxide are decreasing. While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples (the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world),[448] and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene. The country hosted two Winter Olympics and will host a third (in 1956, 2006, and 2026), and one Summer games (in 1960). Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany (12.9%), France (11.4%), and Spain (7.4%). Finally, in 1870, as France abandoned its garrisons in Rome during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War to keep the large Prussian Army at bay, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States. After initially advancing in British Somaliland, Egypt, the Balkans and eastern fronts, the Italians were defeated in East Africa, Soviet Union and North Africa. [493] Ingredients and dishes vary widely by region. [151], In February 2021, after a government crisis within his majority, Conte was forced to resign and Mario Draghi, former president of the European Central Bank, formed a national unity government supported by almost all the main parties,[152] pledging to oversee implementation of economic stimulus to face the crisis caused by the pandemic. The Chinese Maritime Silk Road Initiative: The Role of the Mediterranean. In recent years, the Italian scene has received only occasional international attention, with movies like Life Is Beautiful directed by Roberto Benigni, Il Postino: The Postman with Massimo Troisi and The Great Beauty directed by Paolo Sorrentino. [479] Today, Milan and Turin are the nation's leaders in architectural design and industrial design. Italy is a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC), now the European Union (EU), and of NATO. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders. To remain the Prime Minister has to pass also eventual further votes of confidence or no confidence in Parliament. April 2019 Veröffentlicht in Allgemein Veröffentliche einen Kommentar zu Verlinkung von Paragraphen According to Top Global Fashion Capital Rankings 2013 by Global Language Monitor, Rome ranked sixth worldwide when Milan was twelfth. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific (notably China[333] and the Philippines) and Latin America have been recorded. [194] However, as of 2005[update], 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora. The country has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora. The Italian Socialist Party constantly increased in strength, challenging the traditional liberal and conservative establishment. Starting from the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing under its rule Eritrea and Somalia in East Africa, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in North Africa (later unified in the colony of Libya) and the Dodecanese islands. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths. In addition, the Italian Senate is characterised also by a small number of senators for life, appointed by the President "for outstanding patriotic merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field". Flaminio Scala, who had been a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the start of the 17th century, really in an effort to legitimize the form—and ensure its legacy. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed. The prestigious Venice International Film Festival, awarding the "Golden Lion" and held annually since 1932, is the oldest film festival in the world. The only surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania, in Southern Italy. Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for 9.2% of the national GDP in 2012, very close the OECD countries' average of 9.3%. The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and the Piedmontese Barolo. Juli 2018 22. [433] Antonio Rosmini, instead, was the founder of Italian Idealism. Tron mining. Doric colonists founded Taras, Syrakousai, Megara Hyblaia, Leontinoi, Akragas, Ghelas; the Syracusans founded Ankón and Adria; the megarese founded Selinunte. However, air pollution remains a severe problem, especially in the industrialised north, reaching the tenth highest level worldwide of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in the 1990s. Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. As of 2010, the foreign born population of Italy was from the following regions: Europe (54%), Africa (22%), Asia (16%), the Americas (8%) and Oceania (0.06%). Italy is one of the world's leading producers of pumice, pozzolana, and feldspar. The two great writers of the 14th century, Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, sought out and imitated the works of antiquity and cultivated their own artistic personalities. [124][125] Consequently, in 1949 Italy became a member of NATO. In modern times the Italian Navy, being a member of the EU and NATO, has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations around the world. Reuters.com brings you the latest news from around the world, covering breaking news in markets, business, politics, entertainment, technology, video and pictures. Italy is part of the European single market which represents more than 500 million consumers. It also has at its disposal many Leopard 1 and M113 armoured vehicles. The Italian border that applies today has existed since 1975, when Trieste was formally annexed to Italy. The main Sensist Italian philosophers were Melchiorre Gioja and Gian Domenico Romagnosi. It's also one of the two Grand Prix present in every championship since the first one in 1950. We cover high-end system builds, where you'll want to turn to bespoke water-cooling solutions, through to budget rigs, and plenty in-between. Nevertheless, by his time the larger concept of Oenotria and "Italy" had become synonymous and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. [385] In 2013, UNESCO added the Mediterranean diet to the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of Italy (promoter), Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Cyprus and Croatia. Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing the United Nations and its international security activities. Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world. [363], One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is Judaism, Jews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ. Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the 1400s and 1500s. [185] Italy is the twelfth largest carbon dioxide producer. [269] In 2012 there were 130 airports in Italy, including the two hubs of Malpensa International in Milan and Leonardo da Vinci International in Rome. [213] Italy deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania. In 1855, the Kingdom of Sardinia became an ally of Britain and France in the Crimean War, giving Cavour's diplomacy legitimacy in the eyes of the great powers. Chazizam, M. (2018). However, about 20% of Italian Jews were killed during the Holocaust. Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man, considered the manifesto of Renaissance Humanism, in which he stressed the importance of free will in human beings. During the Coalition Wars, northern-central Italy was reorganised by Napoleon in a number of Sister Republics of France and later as a Kingdom of Italy in personal union with the French Empire. [505], Other festivals include the carnivals in Venice, Viareggio, Satriano di Lucania, Mamoiada, and Ivrea, mostly known for its Battle of the Oranges. The Black Death pandemic of 1348 left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. 482/1999[337] and Trentino Alto-Adige's special Statute,[338] which is adopted with a constitutional law. Four different seas surround the Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea from three sides: the Adriatic Sea in the east,[160] the Ionian Sea in the south,[161] and the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west. Italy (Italian: Italia ()), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlika itaˈljaːna]), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it. [313], From the late 19th century until the 1960s Italy was a country of mass emigration. The Byzantines kept Roman principles of architecture and art alive, and the most famous structure from this period is the Basilica of St. Mark in Venice. Fog machine heats up but no fog. [86] Through a complex series of events, southern Italy developed as a unified kingdom, first under the House of Hohenstaufen, then under the Capetian House of Anjou and, from the 15th century, the House of Aragon. Used handicap vans_ side entry. [210] The Polizia Penitenziaria are responsible for guarding the prison system. Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements,[398] such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries. Roman painting does have its own unique characteristics. [430] Notable Renaissance philosophers include: Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the western world; Marsilio Ficino, one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the period; and Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the main founders of modern political science. The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass, and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design. [413], Guido Guinizelli is considered the founder of the Dolce Stil Novo, a school that added a philosophical dimension to traditional love poetry. In 2011, minority Christian faiths in Italy included an estimated 1.5 million Orthodox Christians, or 2.5% of the population;[360] 500,000 Pentecostals and Evangelicals (of whom 400,000 are members of the Assemblies of God), 251,192 Jehovah's Witnesses,[361] 30,000 Waldensians,[362] 25,000 Seventh-day Adventists, 26,925 Latter-day Saints, 15,000 Baptists (plus some 5,000 Free Baptists), 7,000 Lutherans, 4,000 Methodists (affiliated with the Waldensian Church). The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy,[154][155] while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. [188], Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water levels, Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years. Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow like Bruno Caruso and Renato Guttuso. Italy has a written democratic constitution, resulting from the work of a Constituent Assembly formed by the representatives of all the anti-fascist forces that contributed to the defeat of Nazi and Fascist forces during the Civil War.[200]. The invasion of another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1,300 years. Italy is often grouped in Western Europe. [129] One year later (May–July 1993), tourist spots were attacked, such as the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, leaving 10 dead and 93 injured and causing severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. In the context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. Venice maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century. [424], Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinas, the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism, who reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity. The early Christians' art and architecture was also widely inspired by that of the pagan Romans; statues, mosaics and paintings decorated all their churches. The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of the Great War, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). (in English, Italian, French, and German), harvp error: no target: CITEREFDickie2007 (. Italy became a republic after a referendum[122] held on 2 June 1946, a day celebrated since as Republic Day. Statuto Speciale per il Trentino-Alto Adige, Art. The main public operator of high-speed trains is Trenitalia, part of FSI. Quality goods in which Italy specialises, particularly the already mentioned wines and regional cheeses, are often protected under the quality assurance labels DOC/DOP. [81] The four best known maritime republics were Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi; the others were Ancona, Gaeta, Noli, and Ragusa. [254], A gaping North–South divide is a major factor of socio-economic weakness. The flora of Italy was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco. [418] A movement called Futurism influenced Italian literature in the early 20th century. The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the "Big Four" top Allied powers. [420], In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo played a major role in Italian literature; Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana were its main exponents. [40] One is that it was borrowed via Greek from the Oscan Víteliú 'land of calves' (cf. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Gelato,[496] tiramisù[497] and cassata are among the most famous examples of Italian desserts, cakes and patisserie. [262] Of the total surface area in agricultural use (forestry excluded), grain fields take up 31%, olive tree orchards 8.2%, vineyards 5.4%, citrus orchards 3.8%, sugar beets 1.7%, and horticulture 2.4%. Other astronomers suchs as Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625–1712) and Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835–1910) made many important discoveries about the Solar System. [82][83][84] Each of the maritime republics had dominion over different overseas lands, including many Mediterranean islands (especially Sardinia and Corsica), lands on the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Sea (Crimea), and commercial colonies in the Near East and in North Africa. [195] Italy is a signatory to the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and the Habitats Directive both affording protection to Italian fauna and flora. In 1913, male universal suffrage was adopted. In August 2006 Italy deployed about 2,450 troops in Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping mission UNIFIL. The national railway network, state-owned and operated by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (FSI), in 2008 totalled 16,529 km (10,271 mi) of which 11,727 km (7,287 mi) is electrified, and on which 4,802 locomotives and railcars run. [156], The country's total area is 301,230 square kilometres (116,306 sq mi), of which 294,020 km2 (113,522 sq mi) is land and 7,210 km2 (2,784 sq mi) is water. [288] Italy was also the first country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity. [89] Italian Renaissance exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting and sculpture for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giotto, Donatello, and Titian, and architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Donato Bramante. [59] Archaeological sites from this period include Addaura cave, Altamura, Ceprano, and Gravina in Puglia. The Saint Lucy's Day, which take place on 13 December, is very popular among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar to Santa Claus. The Italian Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the mid-17th centuries with a significant influence also out of the borders of modern Italy. Hier ein Screenshot des neuen Features: Veröffentlicht von karin 29. 26 febbraio 1948, n. 4, Statuto speciale per la Valle d'Aosta, L.cost. [355] Since 1985, Roman Catholicism is no longer officially the state religion. In the 19th century, major Italian Romantic painters were Francesco Hayez, Giuseppe Bezzuoli and Francesco Podesti. The Western Empire, under the pressure of the barbarian invasions, eventually dissolved in 476 AD when its last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer. Some Italian troops in the south were organized into the Italian Co-belligerent Army, which fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini and his RSI, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army. [482] Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. [391], A study by Censis attributes to the pervasive presence of criminal organizations an important role in the delay of Southern Italy, they estimate an annual loss of wealth of 2.5% in the South in the period 1981–2003 due to the presence of such organizations and evaluating that without of these, the per capita GDP of the South would have reached that of the North. Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was the greatest Florentine patron of the Renaissance and supporter of the Italic League. Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia (the two biggest islands of the Mediterranean), in addition to many smaller islands. Other examples of large PV plants in Italy are San Bellino (70.6 MW), Cellino san Marco (42.7 MW) and Sant’ Alberto (34.6 MW). 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